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In a trial-level meta-analysis revealed within the journal Circulation, researchers assessed the results of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2i) on main hostile cardiovascular occasions (MACE) throughout three affected person populations: diabetes at excessive danger for atherosclerotic heart problems (ASCVD), coronary heart failure (HF), or persistent kidney illness (CKD). They discovered that SGLT2i decreased the speed of MACE by 9% with a constant impact throughout all affected person populations and key subgroups, primarily pushed by a discount in cardiovascular (CV) loss of life, significantly HF and sudden cardiac loss of life.

Study: Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitors and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes: A SMART-C Collaborative Meta-Analysis. Image Credit: Lightspring / ShutterstockExamine: Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitors and Main Antagonistic Cardiovascular Outcomes: A SMART-C Collaborative Meta-Evaluation. Picture Credit score: Lightspring / Shutterstock


SGLT2i have been extensively studied in giant, randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving various populations of sufferers, together with these with kind 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and ASCVD, HF, and CKD. Whereas SGLT2i was primarily developed for diabetes, the trials have persistently proven these medication to scale back HF and kidney-related points, no matter diabetes standing. Nevertheless, their influence on MACE stays unclear, with variations noticed amongst trial outcomes. Prior meta-analyses didn’t assess the results on MACE parts definitively. Uncertainty persists, significantly in subgroups with out ASCVD or diabetes and people with superior persistent kidney illness phases. Due to this fact, utilizing information from all important placebo-controlled trials, researchers within the current examine carried out a collaborative meta-analysis to discover SGLT2i’s results on MACE danger and its parts and loss of life subtypes throughout related affected person subgroups.

Concerning the examine

The researchers carried out a collaborative trial-level meta-analysis throughout the SGLT2i Meta-Evaluation Cardio-Renal Trialists Consortium (SMART-C). A scientific literature search was carried out, and the included research had been section 3 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trials with ≥ 1,000 individuals in each arm and median follow-up of six months and above. Mixture SGLT1/2 inhibitors research had been excluded.

The examine included 11 randomized trials evaluating SGLT2i to placebo, with 78,607 individuals in whole. Amongst them, 54.2%, 26.4%, and 19.5% of people participated in trials targeted on diabetes at excessive ASCVD danger, established HF, or CKD, respectively. The imply age of individuals was between 62 and 72 years. Whereas 34.4% of them had been females, 74.5% of them had been white. At baseline, about 79.7% of the sufferers had diabetes, 36% had HF, and 37.2% had eGFR (brief for estimated glomerular filtration price)  lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m². Established ASCVD was current in 58.9%, and 28.5% had prior MI.

The median follow-up length ranged between 2.4 – 4.2 years, 1.3 – 2.2 years, and a pair of.0 – 2.6 years for trials targeted on diabetes at excessive ASCVD danger, HF, and CKD, respectively. The first final result was the composite of 3-point MACE, together with cardiovascular loss of life, myocardial infarction (MI), and all kinds of stroke. The evaluation additionally assessed the person parts of MI and stroke, together with deadly and non-fatal occasions. Moreover, all-cause mortality (ACM) and loss of life subtypes resembling deadly MI, deadly stroke, HF loss of life, sudden cardiac loss of life, in addition to different CV and non-CV deaths had been examined. The evaluation handled every final result as a time-to-event occasion, and the impact estimates from every trial had been derived from intention-to-treat evaluation.

Trial impact estimates had been meta-analyzed inside major affected person teams utilizing fixed-effects fashions after which mixed as random results for total estimates. Sensitivity evaluation was carried out utilizing fastened results. Heterogeneity was assessed utilizing the Cochrane Q statistic and Higgins and Thompson’s I2.

Outcomes and dialogue

About 10.1% of individuals skilled MACE, with 5.3% experiencing CV loss of life, 3.6% experiencing MI, and a pair of.8% experiencing a stroke. SGLT2i was discovered to scale back the speed of MACE by 9% total, with constant results throughout trial populations. Probably the most evident impact was noticed on CV loss of life, with reductions in HF loss of life and sudden cardiac loss of life driving the discount in CV loss of life. There was no important impact on MI or stroke total. SGLT2i had been additionally discovered to scale back ACM, with probably the most important results noticed in CKD trials.

Sufferers with established ASCVD had been discovered to have greater MACE incidence charges throughout all trial varieties. SGLT2i persistently decreased the chance of MACE and CV loss of life no matter established ASCVD standing at baseline. Equally, the results remained constant throughout subgroups stratified by diabetes standing, prior HF, kidney operate, and baseline eGFR. Stratification by albuminuria prompt a possible profit primarily amongst these with ≥30 mg/g albuminuria. Throughout all of the Kidney Illness Bettering World Outcomes (KDIGO) danger teams, the advantages for MACE and CV loss of life had been discovered to be constant.

The examine is restricted by fewer trials in every drug in every illness state and variations in eligibility standards, follow-up length, and subgroup definitions throughout research. These restrictions prohibit strong comparisons throughout the SGLT2i class and decrease the generalizability of findings to broader affected person populations.


In conclusion, SGLT2i persistently lowers the chance of MACE throughout various affected person populations, no matter baseline ASCVD, diabetes, or kidney operate. This profit predominantly comes from decreased cardiovascular loss of life, notably HF and sudden cardiac loss of life, with no important influence on MI or stroke total. These findings counsel the potential utility of SGLT2i throughout the spectrum of cardiovascular-kidney-metabolic illness, aiding in therapeutic decision-making.

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Hector Antonio Guzman German

Graduado de Doctor en medicina en la universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo en el año 2004. Luego emigró a la República Federal de Alemania, dónde se ha formado en medicina interna, cardiologia, Emergenciologia, medicina de buceo y cuidados intensivos.

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